Lobelia cardinalis L.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 7
Coefficient of Wetness: -5
Wetness Index: OBL
Physiognomy: Nt P-Forb

Lobelia cardinalis flowers G. E. Crow flowers

Swamps and floodplain forests; thickets and open ground along rivers and streams; marshes, wet shores, ditches, and swales.

The rich red flowers with their long corolla tube are pollinated normally by hummingbirds; however, bees may visit the flowers and gather nectar through the slits on the sides of the corolla. Hybrids with L. siphilitica [L. ×speciosa Sweet] rarely occur in nature, and have been found only once in Michigan, in Lenawee County in 2011. The hybrid is intermediate in floral structure, with red-purple flowers. Many very showy cultivated plants originate from artificially produced hybrids.

White-flowered plants occur occasionally throughout the range, and are striking in appearance [f. alba (McNab) H. St. John]. Plants with the corollas an intermediate pink may be found with the red and white forms.


Alcona County
Allegan County
Alpena County
Antrim County
Arenac County
Barry County
Bay County
Benzie County
Berrien County
Branch County
Calhoun County
Cass County
Charlevoix County
Cheboygan County
Clare County
Clinton County
Crawford County
Delta County
Eaton County
Emmet County
Genesee County
Gladwin County
Grand Traverse County
Gratiot County
Hillsdale County
Huron County
Ingham County
Ionia County
Iosco County
Isabella County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County
Kent County
Lake County
Lapeer County
Leelanau County
Lenawee County
Livingston County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Manistee County
Mason County
Mecosta County
Menominee County
Midland County
Missaukee County
Monroe County
Montcalm County
Montmorency County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Osceola County
Otsego County
Ottawa County
Presque Isle County
Roscommon County
Saginaw County
Sanilac County
Shiawassee County
St. Clair County
St. Joseph County
Tuscola County
Van Buren County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 30, 2022. https://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=703.