Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Sandy shores and dunes (old and young); dry, usually sandy, savanna and openings with oak, hickory, sassafras, and/or jack pine; limestone crevices and gravels around the Niagara Escarpment, and on other sedimentary and granitic rock outcrops and crevices elsewhere; prairies, dry meadows, and river banks, thickets; occasionally along roadsides.
While the corolla is usually blue, white-flowered plants [f. albiflora E. L. Rand & Redfield in North America] are occasionally found, together with intermediate shades. One collection from Presque Isle Co. has all of the floral parts doubled. Plants with the vegetative parts and ovaries ± densely puberulent were described from Michigan (TL: Indian River, Cheboygan Co.) in 1878 as var. canescens E. J. Hill.
Our plants are Campanula rotundifolia subsp. gieseckiana (Vest) Cajander, sometimes recognized as C. gieseckiana Vest. This has larger, fewer flowers that the typical subspecies of Europe, though there are other entities in Asia, and even Greenland and the North Atlantic regions.