Hackelia deflexa (Wahlenb.) Opiz
Common Name: STICKSEED
Coefficient of Conservatism: 2
Coefficient of Wetness: 5
Wetness Index: UPL
Physiognomy: Nt B-Forb

Deciduous forests, especially along borders, trails, and clearings; on shores and bluffs; dune thickets and rocky sites.

Eurasian plants differ slightly from our native American ones, which are var. americana (A. Gray) Fernald & I. M. Johnst., also known as H. americana (A. Gray) Fernald.

Plants with leaves as wide (very rarely) as 5 cm are robust ones (a meter or more tall), while plants of H. virginiana with leaves as narrow as 2.5 cm are small, delicate ones. The difference in flower color is consistent on Michigan material, although as in any blue-flowered species white-flowered individuals of H. deflexa might occur.


Alpena County
Antrim County
Charlevoix County
    Including Beaver Island
Cheboygan County
Chippewa County
    Including Drummond Island
Delta County
Dickinson County
Emmet County
Grand Traverse County
Iosco County
Keweenaw County
Leelanau County
    Including Fox Islands
    Including Manitou Islands
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Mason County
Newaygo County
Ontonagon County
Ottawa County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. May 7, 2021. https://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=571.