Carpinus caroliniana Walter
Coefficient of Conservatism: 6
Coefficient of Wetness: 0
Wetness Index: FAC
Physiognomy: Nt Tree

Swamps and stream banks; also upland forests, including aspen, oak-hickory, and rich beech-maple stands.

This is sometimes called ironwood, a name better reserved for Ostrya. The straight unbranched lateral veins of the leaf may suggest those of beech, and the leaves are also plicate in the bud; however, the margins are doubly serrate, while in beech the only teeth are at the ends of the veins. The nutlets are in pairs, subtended by a prominent green bract formed by enlargement of the tiny floral bracts; the true subtending bract is deciduous. The smooth muscular-looking bark is an ideal field character.


Alcona County
Alger County
Allegan County
Antrim County
Arenac County
Baraga County
Barry County
Bay County
Benzie County
Berrien County
Branch County
Calhoun County
Cass County
Clinton County
Crawford County
Delta County
Dickinson County
Eaton County
Genesee County
Gladwin County
Gogebic County
Gratiot County
Hillsdale County
Houghton County
Huron County
Ingham County
Ionia County
Iosco County
Isabella County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County
Kent County
Lake County
Lapeer County
Lenawee County
Macomb County
Manistee County
Mason County
Mecosta County
Menominee County
Midland County
Missaukee County
Montcalm County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Ontonagon County
Osceola County
Ottawa County
Roscommon County
Saginaw County
Sanilac County
Shiawassee County
St. Clair County
St. Joseph County
Tuscola County
Van Buren County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. November 30, 2022.