Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
A Eurasian species, collected by the First Survey in 1838 (Kalamazoo Co.) and now thoroughly naturalized in most habitats except the wettest: lawns, roadsides, railroads, fields, dunes; forests, especially disturbed areas; often on dry sand or rock outcrops; occasionally in wet ground; meadows, river banks, shores.
Specimens with deeply pinnatifid (lacerate) leaves but lacking both fruit and protuberances on the phyllaries cannot safely be identified unless the terminal lobe of the leaf is distinctly larger than the lateral lobes, in which case the specimen is presumably T. officinale (although in the shade, red-fruited plants can have a relatively large terminal lobe).