Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Chiefly in disturbed sites: along railroads (and adjacent prairie), fields, rocky clearings, edge of a gravel pit (Beaver Island); native south and west of Michigan and first collected in 1886 in Keweenaw Co.
Our southwestern Michigan collections are from along railroad tracks and it is doubtful whether even they represent native stands. One of the best known populations in the state is in a clearing along the highway at the site of the old lumbering town of Kenneth, northwest of Moran in Mackinac Co., where there are thousands of plants blooming in July. The rays in this species are paler than in E. purpurea, and at maturity are decidedly drooping.