Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Dry to moist sandy open ground or savannas; barrens, fields and meadows; often in transitional areas toward swamps and lakes.
The leaves vary from densely pubescent to glabrate, and the coarse teeth or short lobes at the base of the blade develop as the leaf matures, being much more prominent in summer. Included here as var. ovata (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray are Michigan plants, at least, of V. fimbriatula Sm. This is more pubescent than V. sagittata, with leaves more obscurely toothed and with shorter petioles. Such plants appear quite distinct, for example, on open sandy upper lake shores in the jack pine country, and have been recognized at species rank by Gil-Ad (1997). More work is needed to understand the distribution and distinctness of this entity in Michigan.