Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Native of Asia but widely planted and spreading from cultivation into vacant lots, sidewalk crevices, disturbed ground, shores, and forests. Evidently becoming quite aggressive in recent years. First collected in 1963 in Isabella Co., though surely established well before then.
This is a rapidly growing tree, often small and bushy as an escape but capable of growing to a large size. Sometimes called “Chinese Elm,” but that name is best applied to U. parvifolia Jacq., which flowers and fruits in late summer or fall and has leaves of vigorous shoots with the apex (and teeth) less sharply acute than U. pumila.
Occasional plants in weedy settings that have the growth habit of Ulmus pumila, but with larger and somewhat scabrous leaves and a strong tendency for the leaves of rapidly growing (indeterminate) terminal shoots to be much larger than the leaves of shorter shoots, are apparent hybrids with U. rubra. As in U. rubra, the inner bark of the hybrids is quite mucilaginous when chewed. This hybrid, U. ×intermedia Elowsky, has been confirmed from Jackson Co., and has been observed but not collected in Washtenaw and Wayne Cos. See Zalapa, Brunet, & Guries (2009) and Elowsky, Jordon-Thaden, & Kaul ( 2013) for more information on this hybrid.