Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Forested to open dunes along Lake Michigan; sandy fields and knolls; fencerows and dry bluffs or banks; rarely in moister sites along rivers and edges of floodplain forests.The Upper Peninsula collection is escaped from cultivation, and perhaps also the Missaukee County collection.
The species is variable, but almost all Michigan plants are var. trifoliata. A few from the Lake Michigan area have been referred to var. mollis Torr. & A. Gray, which differs in having dense pubescence on twigs, leaves, and inflorescences.