Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
GOOSEGRASS, CLEAVERS, ANNUAL BEDSTRAW
B. S. Walters
This is a circumpolar species of deciduous forests and thickets, especially in disturbed areas, presumably native, but apparently spreading northward in Michigan in recent years. There are few pre-1900 collections, all from the southern Lower Peninsula and none before 1860 (Washtenaw Co.) (an 1890 O. A. Farwell collection with minimal data purported to be from Keweenaw Co. is suspect and not mapped). There seems to have been rapid spread in the 1940’s and subsequently.
The bristles on the fruit are hooked at the tips and thus it is easily dispersed on fur, feathers, and human clothing. The stems are sometimes rather smooth, with a good lens (or sensitive fingers) needed to be sure of the retrorse barbs on some internodes. The greater roughness of the upper surface of the leaves, as well as the retrorse (or at least spreading) barbs on the margins, are generally good distinctions from G. triflorum, also common in deciduous forests.