Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
WHITE BANEBERRY, DOLL'S-EYES
Ann Arbor Natural Area Preservation
Rich deciduous forests and northern hardwoods, less often under pine, cedar, or other conifers. Often growing with one or both color forms of A. rubra.
Readily distinguished from A. rubra in fruit, by its striking elongate raceme of porcelain-like berries on thick red stalks. In A. rubra, the raceme is more often compact and the pedicels remain very slender. Young flowering material, before the pedicels have begun to thicken, is more difficult to determine, although the peculiar tips of the petals are helpful (the sepals fall off very early). The broad stigma in A. pachypoda seems to be more clearly sessile (the style, if any, broad and thick beneath it) than in A. rubra, where the pistil tends to narrow somewhat beneath the stigma. Differences in leaf pubescence cannot be relied upon, although in A. pachypoda the leaves are more often glabrous or nearly so beneath, while in A. rubra there is usually at least some small pubescence along the veins beneath. Specimens truly intermediate between the species are rare but some hybridization occurs, producing Actaea ×ludovici B. Boivin. A red-fruited form of A. pachypoda is known [f. rubrocarpa (Killip) Fernald] but seems to be very rare if it occurs in Michigan at all.