Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Oak forests and other upland deciduous forest; also forests and thickets along streams, including river floodplain swamps.
This species barely ranges as far north as Michigan, and herbarium specimens are not always easy to separate from V. lentago. The leaves are very finely toothed, the teeth less—typically much less—than 0.4 mm long (measured perpendicular to the basic leaf margin); the lateral branchlets diverge widely and stiffly from the main branches. In V. lentago, the teeth are usually ca. 0.5 mm long and the lateral branches more ascending, lax, or less stiffly straight in aspect.