Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
A European species, local along railroads and sandy roadsides, in disturbed ground such as parking lots and dumps, and on shores. The oldest Michigan collection seen is from 1909, as a weed in alfalfa in Alcona Co. No other collections antedate 1928 (Emmet Co.).
The seeds have long been used for their laxative and stabilizing properties; they have a very mucilaginous seed coat when wet, as do those of other species.