Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Usually a tall straight tree of striking appearance when solitary or in groves on sand dunes, ridges through boggy ground, or rock outcrops; common on well drained sandy plains, seldom on moist ground, sometimes with balsam fir, often with jack pine and oak.
Much used for plantations, and the southernmost records, from Allegan and Berrien Cos. are escaped from plantings; some other southern collections may also be non-native, although this species was collected by the First Survey in St. Clair Co. in 1838.