Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Usually a tall straight tree of striking appearance when solitary or in groves on sand dunes, ridges through boggy ground, or rock outcrops; common on well drained sandy plains, seldom on moist ground, sometimes with balsam fir, often with jack pine and oak.Occurring mostly near the Great Lakes shores south of the middle of the Lower Peninsula, south to St. Clair, and perhaps Ottawa Cos..
Much used for plantations, and the southernmost records, from Allegan, Berrien, Kent, Lapeer, Livingston and Oakland Cos. are escaped from plantings; some other southern collections may also be non-native, although this species was collected by the First Survey in St. Clair Co. in 1838.