Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr.
Common Name: SQUAW-ROOT
Coefficient of Conservatism: 10
Coefficient of Wetness: 5
Wetness Index: UPL
Physiognomy: Nt P-Forb

Often common locally in deciduous or mixed forests, wherever there is oak, including beech-maple, oak-hickory, or northern hardwoods stands, and even sometimes in rather swampy sites; occasionally no oak is evident in the immediate vicinity.

The dense inflorescence, which some have likened to a pine cone in gross appearance, usually occupies half or more the height of the plant, which overall is somewhat cream-colored to yellowish brown when fresh, except for brown tips on the bracts and leaves. The only known host is oak (Quercus spp., especially Q. rubra in Michigan). A large woody gall is formed where the parasite’s root is attached to the oak root. After about 4 years of underground growth, Conopholis sends up thick annual flowering stems for several more years.


Allegan County
Barry County
Benzie County
Berrien County
Branch County
Calhoun County
Cass County
Cheboygan County
Chippewa County
Emmet County
Gratiot County
Houghton County
Huron County
Ingham County
Ionia County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County
Kent County
Keweenaw County
Lake County
Leelanau County
    Including Manitou Islands
Lenawee County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Macomb County
Marquette County
Mason County
Monroe County
Montcalm County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Ontonagon County
Ottawa County
Saginaw County
St. Joseph County
Van Buren County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. May 26, 2022.