Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Dry sandy savanna (pine, aspen) on dunes or plains; sandy banks and bluffs, upper beaches, rock outcrops; barren open burned- or cut- over ground, gravel pits, clearings, newly made roadsides, recently bull-dozed areas; sometimes in moist ground, especially disturbed borders of swamps and bogs. Often forms large colonies from an extensive system of horizontal roots in newly disturbed sandy soils and persists for some years after disturbance.
Becoming quite uncommon southward, and essentially absent in southeasternmost Michigan. This species is often virtually herbaceous, with little or no woody stem. Occasionally, however, individual stems may survive for several years and develop a short, bristly woody trunk that may reach (rarely) 0.5 m high.