Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Dry sandy fields, trails, gravel pits, dumps, and roadsides; also in cindery railroad ballast and sometimes on shores and banks; considered originally native in warmer climates of America, but known from Michigan as early as the 1837 collections of the First Survey in St. Joseph Co.
The whorled, ± narrowly spatulate leaves (broader at base of plant) and prostrate habit give this species the superficial aspect of Galium, but it is readily distinguished by the 5 separate sepals, absence of petals, 3 (or 5) stamens, and clearly 3-carpellate superior ovary, which ripens into a capsule.