Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Characteristic of rich upland deciduous forests, usually with sugar maple, beech, hemlock, and other trees; sometimes occurring in swamps (even with cedar).
This species sprouts readily after fire or cutting, and clumps of large trunks are common, with their neatly furrowed bark (smoother and gray when young). The larger leaf blades are ordinarily ca. 8–18 cm long, although some may be even longer, especially on sprouts.