Galeopsis tetrahit L.
Common Name: HEMP-NETTLE
Coefficient of Conservatism: *
Coefficient of Wetness: 3
Wetness Index: FACU
Physiognomy: Ad A-Forb

A Eurasian species (or complex), reported from Michigan as early as the First Survey (1838) although the oldest collection seen is from 1850 (Macomb Co.). Especially common in the northern part of the state, in moist forests and thickets, particularly in logging trails, borders, and clearings; also along rivers, streams, and gravelly shores; yards, refuse heaps, and other disturbed ground.

Corolla color is pink or white, both forms being frequent and at times growing together. The density of the hairs on the retrorse-hispid stem is also variable.

Much of our material is var. bifida (Boenn.) Lej. & Courtois, sometimes recognized as a closely related species, G. bifida Boenn., with the middle lobe of the lower lip ± notched rather than entire and squarish. Both seem to have similar ranges in the state, but many collections are insufficient for accurate determination. Only material with flowers should be gathered and collectors should note the shape of the middle lobe of the lip and carefully press the flowers to preserve the lip shape. One collection from Alger Co. appears to be intermediate; presumably a hybrid.


Alcona County
Alger County
Allegan County
Alpena County
Baraga County
Benzie County
Charlevoix County
    Including Beaver Island
Cheboygan County
Chippewa County
    Including Drummond Island
Delta County
Emmet County
Genesee County
Gogebic County
Houghton County
Iron County
Kalkaska County
Keweenaw County
    Including Isle Royale
Leelanau County
    Including Manitou Islands
Lenawee County
Luce County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Macomb County
Marquette County
Mecosta County
Menominee County
Montmorency County
Ontonagon County
Presque Isle County
Schoolcraft County
St. Clair County
Washtenaw County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 3, 2022.