Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Most often an understory shrub in deciduous forests, both dry and sandy with oak, pine, aspen, and/or sassafras and rich beech-maple forest; often on slopes and hillsides, including old forested dunes as well as river banks; less often in somewhat swampy forests (but not conifer swamps). In Michigan, found only south of the known range of V. edule.
A rare form [f. ovatum Rehder] with leaf blades ± ovate and pinnately veined was collected by O. A. Farwell in Wayne Co. in 1922 and in Lenawee Co. in 1927. It can be distinguished from V. dentatum and V. rafinesquianum not only by the tiny red dots on undersides of the leaves but also by the stellate pubescence on petioles and blades beneath.