Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Included in C. pensylvanica in Michigan Flora.
Primarily a prairie species of dry, open, sandy soils and bluffs, rare and scattered (or overlooked?) eastward. Michigan plants are subsp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins and are difficult to distinguish from C. pensylvanica except with well-developed, mature perigynia. The staminate spikes often appear clavate, with the upper scales long-acuminate and spreading, and the perigynium beaks can reach 1.3 mm long.