Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Stabilized sand dunes, lake shores, open deciduous forests, especially, oak-hickory, and even swamps and open wetlands; but most characteristic, especially in the southeastern Lower Peninsula, of old fields and hillsides in open juniper savannas with J. communis. It is not certain whether any of the collections north of Newaygo Co. represent native plants.
Red-cedar is probably more common and widespread in Michigan now than it was before the clearing of the landscape. Both this species and J. horizontalis have sharp awl-like leaves on the young growth and seedlings (or sometimes after injury), while the leaves on old growth are scale-like and overlapping.
Normally a small, early successional tree, Juniperus virginiana can be long-lived if not overtopped and shaded; the State champion was 20 m tall and about 1 m in diameter in 2003.