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The new site offers several benefits over the existing website, including real coordinate mapping, giving a clearer view of the density of documentation as well as more precision about plant distributions and their link to landforms. We will also have the ability to update species pages more regularly, both in terms of new collections and as more existing Michigan specimens are georeferenced. In addition, we have a better photo display, and offer indented keys.

Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Alph. Wood
Synonym: Dentaria maxima
Coefficient of Conservatism: 10
Coefficient of Wetness: 3
Wetness Index: FACU
Physiognomy: Nt P-Forb
Status: T
Cardamine maxima S. Taylor

Dentaria maxima of Michigan Flora.

Rich deciduous forests, often along streams.

Our other two species of toothwort, C. concatenata and C. diphylla, are common and variable, although quite distinct in their normal appearance. Cardamine maxima has an aspect strongly suggesting that it is of hybrid origin.


Arenac County
Gogebic County
Macomb County
Ontonagon County
St. Clair County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. January 31, 2023.