Lithospermum caroliniense (Walter) MacMill.
Coefficient of Conservatism: 10
Coefficient of Wetness: 5
Wetness Index: UPL
Physiognomy: Nt P-Forb

Characteristic of sand dunes and shores; also in oak and pine (especially jack pine) savanna, often with Juniperus; sandy barrens and ridges, prairie remnants.

Both this species and L. canescens are heterostylous, some plants bearing flowers with long styles and short stamens and other plants, short styles with long stamens (i.e., inserted near summit of corolla tube).

In the narrowest sense this is a species of Coastal Plain areas from Virginia to Florida, Texas, and Mexico, and north to Arkansas. Our plants, ranging from the Great Lakes region to Montana and Kansas may be recognized as L. caroliniense subsp. croceum (Fernald) Cusick.


Alcona County
Alger County
Allegan County
Alpena County
Antrim County
Arenac County
    Including Charity Island
Barry County
Bay County
Benzie County
Berrien County
Calhoun County
Charlevoix County
    Including Beaver Island
Cheboygan County
Crawford County
Delta County
Emmet County
Grand Traverse County
Huron County
Ingham County
Iosco County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kent County
Lake County
Leelanau County
    Including Fox Islands
    Including Manitou Islands
Lenawee County
Livingston County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Macomb County
Manistee County
Marquette County
Mason County
Mecosta County
Monroe County
Montcalm County
Montmorency County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Oscoda County
Otsego County
Ottawa County
Presque Isle County
Schoolcraft County
St. Clair County
St. Joseph County
Van Buren County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. December 3, 2022.