Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Seepy shaded slopes and banks in forests, both deciduous and coniferous, cedar swamps, shaded stream banks, seepy, especially calcareous rock outcrops, shaded roadside banks, and shady talus slopes.
The large, ground covering colonies this fern can produce through vegetative spread by the bulbils are a distinctive feature of many moist, shady calcareous settings such as seeps in forests, shaded talus slopes and moist outcrops, and calcareous conifer swamps.