Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Sand dunes and beaches along the shores of the Great Lakes; sandy plains and savannas with jack pine and oak; rock crevices and ledges near Lakes Michigan and Superior.
Common and showy late in the summer on sand dunes along Lake Michigan and northern Lake Huron is var. gillmanii (A. Gray) G. S. Ringius. This is a robust variety, the stems sometimes a meter tall, the inflorescences often branching and large-headed, and the leaves toothed. Plants of the jack pine plains, even large ones, tend to have slightly smaller involucres, sometimes only 4.5–5 mm long. These plants bloom very early, and are more similar to the more western var. simplex but their status remains unclear. Plants (usually ± stunted) of Upper Peninsula rock outcrops near the shores of Lake Superior and rarely Lake Michigan are also sometimes small-headed, and are var. ontarioensis. Herbarium specimens especially from northern Michigan are difficult to tell from dwarfed forms of the variable S. hispida, however, in our area, S. simplex is the only species with glutinous phyllaries and leaves—often manifested by sticking to the newsprint when pressed. However, when plants get drought stressed or covered with dust or grit, it can be harder to tell if they are glutinous.