Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Collected only as sporadic waifs in disturbed areas and along railroads, first in Emmet Co. in 1917; introduced from the west.
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 21, 2018. https://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=291.