Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
in forest understory
Rich often swampy forests: deciduous, mixed, or coniferous (hemlock, white pine, fir, and especially cedar), often thriving on banks and in ravines; favored by the moist winds from Lake Michigan and often luxuriant on forested dunes and in coniferous forests near the shore.
This is heavily browsed by deer and moose in Michigan, and has become scarce and represented by deformed, heavily browsed plants, or essentially absent in parts of the state due to severe deer browsing. In areas free from deer browsing, large clones with arching stems, branching in one plane, to 2 m tall can be frequent, sometimes to the point of making walking nearly impossible. In very rare cases, isolated stems can be up to up to 4.6 m tall, though still mantaining the characteristic arched form and branching pattern of the species. See Fawcett & Reznicek (2018), for more information.