Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Native west of the Great Lakes, but an unpleasant weed in our area. Farmyards, pastures, flower beds, roadsides, gravel pits, fields, dump heaps, railroads, and other disturbed ground, though apparently not lasting long in a given site. The earliest Michigan collection seen is from Lansing (Ingham Co.) in 1871, but there are no others until several counties in the 1890’s.
This species seems to be less often a cause of poisoning than S. carolinense, perhaps because its spine-covered fruits are so unattractive to ingest. It was the original native host of the Colorado potato beetle.