Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Reported by the First Survey, but the earliest extant collections date from 1865 (Ingham Co.), 1871 (Muskegon Co.), and 1888 (Kent Co.); mostly spreading in the 20th century to roadsides and railroads, fields and pastures, disturbed ground (including newly disturbed sites and vacant lots), borders of forests (and clearings).
The corolla is usually yellow, but frequently white [f. erubescens Brügger], very rarely pink.