Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Ann Arbor Natural Area Preservation
A Eurasian species, sometimes cultivated, and in southern Michigan, a serious invasive pest, forming thickets in vacant lots, at borders of forests, along roadsides, fencerows, railroads, river banks, and clearings; occasionally in swamps. First collected in Michigan at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw Co., in 1914, but in the next two years recorded as plentiful and naturalized around Birmingham and Bloomfield Hills, Oakland Co. Now a pernicious weed, especially in forests near urban areas.
See under Rhamnus utilis for comments on hybridization.