Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
B. S. Walters
Fens, openings in tamarack and cedar (also sometimes spruce) swamps, peaty streamside thickets, interdunal swales, sedge marshes and mat, sometimes in wet, open deciduous forests, rocky openings and outcrops; generally a calciphile and a good indicator of fens.
The leaf blades are of similar proportions to those of R. cathartica, but are more acute, may average a little larger, and have more pairs of lateral veins. These are strongly ascending and curve along the margins, much as in leaves of Cornus (which, however, are strictly entire).