Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Rock outcrops, especially ledges, boulders, and talus, of both calcareous and acidic rock; also occasional on mossy logs, stumps, and tree bases, and also soil, especially on steep slopes.
Doubtless the commonest "rock fern" in Michigan, but also fairly widespread on steep slopes of wooded dunes near lake Michigan. Otherwise rare and local on steep banks, stumps, and logs inland.