Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Native to the Old World, especially the Mediterranean area and, at least in the past, grown for forage. Now a weed of roadsides, fields, shores, and disturbed ground. Locally a troublesome weed in agricultural fields in the southwest part of the Lower Peninsula; first collected in Berrien Co. in 1917. An 1891 collection from the "Experiment Station, Michigan Agricultural College" (MICH) is presumably from cultivation.
Perennial from extensive rhizomes, and often a noxious weed very difficult to eradicate, especially where more abundant southward.