Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
flowering plants in habitat
Mostly along the shores of the Great Lakes, in gravelly, sandy, or marly places and thriving in crevices of rocks; occasionally inland on shores and river banks and, in southern Michigan, in fens.
This is a difficult circumpolar species complex in need of study in North America. A coarse (to 2 m tall), weedy introduced race, sometimes designated subsp. parviflora (Thuill.) K. Richt., is known from Ontario and eastward, but has not yet been discovered in Michigan.