Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
A widespread Eurasian weed, well established in forests (especially along borders, trails, old logging roads, openings, and clearings); meadows, pastures, farmyards, roadsides, and other disturbed ground; fields, lawns, gardens; banks of rivers and streams. Collected as early as 1842 (presumably Macomb or Oakland Co.), 1857 (Detroit, Wayne Co.), 1860 (Ann Arbor, Washtenaw Co.), and 1861 (Mackinac Island, Mackinac Co.); by 1890, locally throughout the state. The introduced plant is the var. serpyllifolia, with usually usually whitish or pale blue flowers (with darker blue lines) and the inflorescence axis and pedicels having only incurved hairs
One old undated but mid-19th century collection from Chippewa Co. is apparently the native boreal and western var. humifusa (Dickson) Vahl, sometimes recognized as a distinct species. This variety has many straight hairs slightly longer than the antrorsely incurved ones, especially in the inflorescence (on the axis and pedicels), giving that part of the plant a more hairy look than the lower portion of the stem; the flowers (deeper blue) and fruits are a little larger than in var. serpyllifolia.