Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Coniferous and mixed forests, often with aspen or paper birch (especially in a rather characteristic association near the Great Lakes shores); cedar swamps, bogs, and spruce-fir stands. The Ingham Co. collections is from "a clump of trees in a sphagnum bog" and is presumably a native occurrence.
Readily recognized by the smooth round leaf scars, this aromatic plant is a popular Christmas tree, since the needles do not fall readily as do those of the spruces. Resin-filled pustules are characteristic of the bark of this species, and the young female cones are often heavily resinous.