Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A native species of somewhat disturbed soils: borders of forests and fields, roadsides, disturbed forests, fencerows, barnyards and edges of gardens, usually in fairly rich soils.
This is a large bushy herb, sometimes as much as 3 m tall, and produces copious large racemes of attractive purple-black berries. The large perennial root is poisonous, but was of reputed medicinal value in early days.