Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A European species, spreading westward from New England and first collected in Michigan in 1983 in Delta Co. by D. Henson. Likely to continue spreading in lawns, clearings, trails, roadsides, old railroad grades.
This is a fairly easy species to identify, with glabrous leaves and with more definite (almost hair-like) bristle tips on the teeth of the leaves and calyx than the other two species, although the bristle tips are a little less pronounced than on some Ontario material. The plants often present a rather “skinny” aspect, with longer internodes and smaller leaves than other species, and a close look reveals to the naked eye a somewhat bristly aspect from the prolonged teeth. Furthermore, the bracts tend to be more strongly erect, compared to a spreading habit in the other species. Robust specimens may be as tall as 20–40 cm, while on Isle Royale our native species do not exceed 20 cm in height (though they may be larger elsewhere).