Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Calcareous sandy or gravelly shores, including interdunal flats and conifer thickets; river and stream banks, swamps (especially cedar), occasionally fens; marshy ground, meadows, springy and marly places, crevices and shallow soil at limestone outcrops; moist jack pine and oak scrub. Especially conspicuous in the straits region.
In f. lutescens Farw., the calyx and bracts are bright yellow rather than red; it is found occasionally, usually with the common form but sometimes in a stand by itself. Forma alba Farw. was described as white, and orange color foms have also been seen.