Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A native of Europe, much cultivated and often spreading along roadsides and into forests and thickets, sometimes abundant and long-persisting, out-competing native vegetation. First collected in 1888 in Ingham Co.
The fruits are rarely seen, and apparently uncommon, They are paired follicles, typical of many Apocynaceae, but borne on reflexed peduncles and hidden under the leaves. Spread is mostly vegetative, likely largely through dumping of garden refuse, and seedlings are fortunately rare. Nevertheless, the smothering evergreen colonies can be extensive. While white and purple flowered or variegated leaved forms are sometimes cultivated, all our wild growing collections are of green-leaved, blue-flowered plants.