Juncus bufonius L.
Common Name: TOAD RUSH
Coefficient of Conservatism: 2
Coefficient of Wetness: -3
Wetness Index: FACW
Physiognomy: Nt A-Forb

Juncus bufonius A. A. Reznicek

Moist often sandy soil (e.g., shores) but also in clay and in disturbed ground of roadsides, old trails, etc.

The leaf sheaths lack auricles at the summit, thus distinguishing this annual species from unusual individuals of the perennial J. tenuis, J. dudleyi, and J. pelocarpus that might appear similar.

Our common plants, native throughout, are var. bufonius, with the flowers scattered, sometimes virtually throughout the plant, not clustered apically. A few collections from sandy shores and roadsides in Alcona, Arenac, Chippewa, Delta, Houghton, Huron, Muskegon, Oakland, and St. Clair Cos. are the var. congestus Wahlenb. with the flowers more densely clustered apically on the stem. This is introduced from Europe; it was noted from one Muskegon Co. collection, as forma congestus, in Michigan Flora Vol. 1 but without commentary.


Alcona County
Alger County
Allegan County
Alpena County
Antrim County
Arenac County
Baraga County
Bay County
Berrien County
Cass County
Charlevoix County
    Including Beaver Island
Cheboygan County
Chippewa County
    Including Drummond Island
Clinton County
Crawford County
Delta County
Dickinson County
Emmet County
Gogebic County
Grand Traverse County
Gratiot County
Hillsdale County
Houghton County
Huron County
Ingham County
Ionia County
Iosco County
Iron County
Jackson County
Kalamazoo County
Kalkaska County
Kent County
Keweenaw County
Lake County
Leelanau County
Lenawee County
Livingston County
Mackinac County
    Including Bois Blanc, Mackinac, Round Islands
Macomb County
Manistee County
Marquette County
Mecosta County
Midland County
Missaukee County
Monroe County
Montcalm County
Muskegon County
Newaygo County
Oakland County
Oceana County
Ottawa County
Presque Isle County
Roscommon County
Saginaw County
Sanilac County
Schoolcraft County
Shiawassee County
St. Clair County
Washtenaw County
Wayne County
Wexford County


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. June 29, 2022. https://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=1506.