Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Usually in somewhat disturbed areas along roads, borders of trails, and thickets and open forests; fields, meadows, and shores; in both swampy and upland areas. Showy, especially in fruit, and commonly cultivated; all records north of the middle of the Lower Peninsula are certainly escapes from cultivation, and some southern records, especially those from rather disturbed sites are also likely escapes.
Our specimens of this species are all the glabrate var. lucidum Aiton, often recognized at specific rank as V. recognitum Fernald. The species in the broad sense is a variable and complex one. One of the collections from Berrien Co. has very short petioles but style and other characters of V. dentatum.