Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
R. W. Smith
Doubtless our most abundant “bog shrub,” often forming very large clones, with lower stems buried in sphagnum, peat, or other substrate (and apparently ± resistant to fire).
Can be expected in every open bog and many shrubby fens (especially on hummocks), wet or dryish, even persisting long after drying or burning of the peat or succession to swamp; small plants also grow in rock crevices and pool margins along Lake Superior, as at Isle Royale. This is a very early blooming species, April or May usually, depending on where in the state.