Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
A. A. Reznicek
Dunes, gravelly and rocky shores, ridges, openings; rock outcrops (especially limestone); open forests (aspen, pine, birch, cedar, fir); clay and calcareous river banks; moist thickets, even fens; readily invading fields and clearings in the heart of its range.
The flowers open just before the leaves in May or late April. They are very inconspicuous, with four tiny yellowish sepals (scurfy-pubescent outside), eight nectariferous glands but no petals, and either eight stamens or a single pistil. The fleshy red-orange fruit matures in early summer and is not especially tasty. This is an easily recognized shrub with its opposite leaves, densely scurfy-pubescent beneath with mixed silvery and rust-brown scales and hairs, sparsely stellate-pubescent above.