Coefficient of Conservatism:
Coefficient of Wetness:
Dry to moist deciduous or mixed conifer-hardwood forests, often on slopes, hummocks, and in ravines. A very common forest understory fern in southern Michigan.
A collection from Keweenaw County by O. A. Farwell is not mapped. Besides being far out of range, it was collected on August 20, 1889, a day when other equally improbable collections allegedly were made, all likely resulting from mislabeling a batch of collections.