1. Cauline leaves all or mostly alternate and lobed more than halfway to midrib; plant with stem hairy (especially upwards, blooming in spring or early summer (May–June depending on season and latitude); upper lip of corolla with a prolonged tooth on each side below the entire or shallowly toothed apex; capsule ca. 2–3 times as long as calyx.
1. Cauline leaves opposite (rarely all alternate), lobed (or coarsely toothed) less than halfway to midrib; plant with stem (at least above) glabrous or nearly so, blooming in late summer and fall (August–September); upper lip of corolla with at most a shallow tooth or angle on each side of the entire or notched apex; capsule scarcely if at all longer than calyx.
All species found in Pedicularis
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. August 1, 2021. https://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Pedicularis.