The non-photosynthetic European Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Sw. is clearly part of the same group as Listera, and the name Neottia has priority (Pridgeon et al. 2005). Neottia bifolia (Raf.) Baumbach (Listera australis Lindl.) is found in open sphagnum bogs just east of Lake Huron in Ontario, and may occur in Michigan. It is like N. cordata in having the lip cleft halfway or more into pointed lobes, but has rounded basal auricles on the lip and smaller flowers.
1. Lip deeply cleft about halfway to its base into two sharp-pointed, narrow lobes; axis of inflorescence glabrous (though the peduncle is puberulent above the leaves); leaves small, up to 2.5 cm long (often 1–1.5 cm), shorter than peduncle; column inconspicuous, ca. 0.5 mm long.
1. Lip shallowly cleft into two ± rounded lobes; axis of inflorescence glandular-puberulent; leaves longer than peduncle, often over 2.5 cm long; column conspicuous, ca. 2–3 mm long.
2. Lip auriculate at base, with distinct rounded lobes; pedicels and ovary glabrous.
2. Lip tapered to narrow base, at most with a weak lateral tooth on each side (not at base); pedicels ± finely glandular-puberulent and the ovary also somewhat so, at least on the main nerves.
All species found in Neottia
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 7, 2020. https://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Neottia.