Two species native to the southern United States (as well as, rarely, the Asian Catalpa ovata) are planted northward and may escape from cultivation, although only one seems to be firmly documented as a wild plant in Michigan. The leaves are usually whorled (or nearly so), but occasionally opposite or even alternate on some shoots.
All species found in Catalpa
MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. July 11, 2020. https://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Catalpa.