The plants have long been known as hemiparasitic on oaks; A. flava and A. virginica are perennials and apparently are restricted to white oaks, while A. pedicularia, an annual or winter-annual, occurs on black oaks. Aureolaria pedicularia has been found to parasitize also Ericaceae in the Southeast, and these species may be more widespread on woody plants than once thought.

1. Stem, outside of calyx, and fruit all glabrous.

A. flava

1. Stem, calyx, and fruit pubescent.

2. Pubescence, especially of calyx and pedicels, conspicuously gland-tipped; pedicels 8–25 (–30) mm long, ± curved; calyx lobes with prolonged toothed or pinnatifid tip.

A. pedicularia

2. Pubescence eglandular; pedicels 2–5 mm long, straight; calyx lobes entire, merely obtuse or rounded at tip.

A. virginica

All species found in Aureolaria

Aureolaria pediculariaANNUAL FALSE FOXGLOVE 
Aureolaria virginicaDOWNY FALSE FOXGLOVE 


MICHIGAN FLORA ONLINE. A. A. Reznicek, E. G. Voss, & B. S. Walters. February 2011. University of Michigan. Web. September 25, 2022.